ESSENTIALS OF PSYCHOLOGY, Fourth Edition 
Bordens/Gerow/Gerow

Video Labs: Chapter #4-Learning

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Classical Conditioning: Neutral, Conditioned, and Unconditioned Stimuli and Responses

One of the basic forms of learning covered in Chapter 4 is classical conditioning. Classical conditioning was discovered by Russian Physiologist Ivan Pavlov at the dawn of the 20th century. Pavlov was studying digestion (research for which he won a Nobel Prize) when he noticed that his dogs began salivating before they were give food. Eventually, the dogs salivated when they heard footsteps in the hallway. The dogs learned to anticipate the food and begin salivating in preparation for the food. This video reviews the basic processes underlying classical conditioning. Run Time: 5:45

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Operant Conditioning

B.F. Skinner was one of the most important behavioral psychologists of the 20th century, He studied the relationship between a behavior and its consequences. According to skinner, whether a behavior is learned, maintained or extinguished depended on the consequences of the behavior. So, for example, if you give your dog a treat every time she comes when you tell her to, that behavior (coming to you) will be strengthened and tend continue because you are reinforcing it. Run Time: 3:57

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Operant Conditioning: Positive-and-Negative Reinforcement and Punishment

One of the more difficult distinctions for students of psychology to make is between negative reinforcement and punishment. Negative reinforcement involves the removal of an aversive stimulus contingent on some behavior with the intention of strengthening behavior. In contrast, punishment is the delivery of an aversive stimulus after a behavior with the intention of weakening it. This video contrasts these two concepts. Run Time: 6:58

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Observational Learning: Bobo Doll Experiment and Social Cognitive Theory

Sometimes we may not learn by associating two stimuli (classical conditioning) or associating a behavior with its consequences (operant conditioning). Sometimes, we learn by watching what others do through a process of observational learning. For example, you might watch a You Tube video on how to use a program you just installed on your computer. A classic experiment on observational learning was conducted by Albert Bandura. Bandura had children watch an adult model perform several unique aggressive behaviors and then he looked to see if the children would imitate these behaviors when given the chance later. He found that children did, in fact, learn unique aggressive behaviors just from watching the model. This video overs the processes involved in observational learning by exploring Bandura’s classic experiment. Run Time: 6:58

Other Video Resources - Crash Course Psychology

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