ESSENTIALS OF PSYCHOLOGY, Fourth Edition 
Bordens/Gerow/Gerow

Video Labs: Chapter #10-Personality

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Psychoanalytic Theory

Of all the theories of personality perhaps the most widely known is that of Sigmund Freud. Freud proposed that personality was made up of three parts: The id, ego, and superego. He also stated that there were three levels of consciousness: the conscious (what we are aware of), preconscious (just below the surface of awareness), and unconscious (things we are not aware of and most likely cannot be aware of). Freud stated that there was a relationship between the three parts of the personality and the levels of consciousness. For example, the id operates totally in the unconscious. This video reviews Freud’s theory of personality. Run Time: 7:42

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The Barnum Effect-Projective Tests

Psychologists use a variety of tests to assess personality. Some of these tests are paper-and-pencil tests (like the MMPI) with high levels of reliability and validity. Others are projective tests where a person looks at an ambiguous stimulus and tells a story about it. These types of tests are generally less reliable and valid than paper-and-pencil tests. Another place you could encounter a personality test is online or in a magazine. Some of these provide very general personality profiles that can apply to just about anyone (read horoscopes for similar examples). Despite the general descriptions people tend to believe that the profiles produce (or horoscopes) are accurate and good descriptions of themselves. This is known as the Barnum Effect which occurs when a person finds personal meaning in a very general description. This video explores the Barnum Effect. It shows a compelling demonstration of the effect. Run Time: 8:25

Theories of Personality-Behavioral Theor
Theories of Personality-Behavioral Theory

One of the theories of personality is the behavioral theory. Unlike Freud’s theory, which focuses on unconscious motivations for behavior, the behavioral theory focuses on overt, observable behavior. According to this theory, personality, like any other behavior, is learned. So, if you want to know why, for example, a person is aggressive you need to look at the kinds of behaviors the person was reinforced for in the past. A person with an aggressive personality, according to this theory, was most likely positively reinforced for aggression in the past. This video reviews the behavioral theory of personality. Run Time: 8:25

Other Video Resources - Crash Course Psychology

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